Monthly Archives: March 2013

Sunset at the South Pole

March 21, 2013: The Equinox – the technical date that the sun, as a point, sets at the South Pole. On a perfectly spherical earth, with no topography, no atmosphere, no height above the ground the sun would be exactly halfway below/above the horizon on this day …Of course this isn’t the case, so our sunset is a little more variable. Since reaching a peak height of 23.5deg (the tilt of the earth) on the December solstice the sun has slowly spiraled towards the horizon. For the past few weeks we have witnessed increasingly beautiful displays of gold, pink, and purple light. Shadows stretch exponentially and the sun spins around us, just skimming the horizon, moving as much as 15deg an hour. Inside it has become noticeably darker, with lights turned on in the galley and my room nearly dark at night. This is a pretty big deal for us winter overs as the sun rises and sets only once a year here at the South Pole – events witnessed solely by those who commit to winter here, a total 1389 people (197 women)since 1957.

A good visual (thanks wikipedia) of variuos dusk/twighlight terms.

A good visual (thanks wikipedia) of variuos dusk/twighlight terms.

Due to a combination of phenomena, the sun is still visible today and will likely remain so for a few days yet. Even after the orb ducks below the horizon we will have a few weeks of light, phasing from daylight to civil twilight (0-6º below horizon) to nautical twilight (6-12º below) astronomical twilight (12-18º below) and eventually to full darkness. The moon rises and sets on a two week cycle, the brightness of which can be significant, so we will not be in full darkness for the entire winter. That said, it will be pretty dark for a good ~4 months.

The next moonrise is March 26th, but the sun won’t show it’s light again until the next equinox (vernal for us in the Southern hemisphere, autumnal for those of you further North) on September 21, 2013.

The latest update from the Coldest Journey which has just begun their trek to the Pole:

A few factors that influence the actual sunset are variable topography, air densities, and thermal inversions. The topography at the South Pole is not completely flat and uniform as it might seem, gradual undulations over miles create nearly imperceptible hills and valleys. These become noticeable this time of year with the sun appearing to be right on the horizon at noon and a few degrees above at 5pm. Strong thermal inversions exist here as well which can significantly refract the light, making the sun visible many days after it has technically set. The refractive effects of our atmosphere can make the sun appear to be flattened or squished against the horizon, or deceptively higher than it actually is, and is the cause of the green flash (LOTS more on the green flash and refraction here: – a phenomenon that has been visible for several hours in past years. Today it’s quite cloudy, but here’s a photo of a green/blue “flash” taken in 2000 by Rodney Marks:

blue flash And some more from 2003 (photographer unknown):

2003 greenflash.jpg


And here are some of my photos of the sun taken this year:












And so begins the longest night…


Filed under Antarctic, Science, South Pole, Winter

Waste Management – Spill Response – Antarctica

PART I: 99 Bins of Trash on the WallIMG_8741

Garbage, Rubbish, Trash, Junk, Refuse, Compost, Debris, Recycling, Haz…
It all goes through USAP’s Waste Management, which this winter at the South Pole is me, myself, and I.

Nearly 70% of the waste generated at McMurdo and South Pole is recycled or reused, that’s not bad considering in 2010 the recycling rate in the US on average was 34% (
All the waste generated on continent must be shipped back to the States to be processed so we take recycling and waste management seriously down here. At Pole it is collected in HUGE cardboard boxes called triwalls (more on these in the next post), stored on the berms through the winter, and flown out to McMurdo in summer where depending on the category it is it is baled, condensed, crushed, separated, shredded, sorted, or otherwise processed. Once consolidated the waste is packed into shipping containers (we call them milvans down here, short for military containers though they are also known as conex boxes) and loaded onto the vessel that arrives once a year from Port Huyneme, CA bringing South food and supplies to McMurdo and returning laden with waste.

My job here is to set up and maintain our waste collection points, securely store hazardous waste, and respond to hazardous spills. It’s a pretty physical job wrestling triwalls and drums, and involves at least a little outside work every day. I’m the only “Wastie” here, but I work with everyone on station so it’s not too lonely.

Waste at the South Pole is segregated into 13 main categories with even more additional categories for haz items. It can be a little overwhelming at first to toss a hand warmer wrapper out and be faced with 13 bins…is it Plastic? Non-Recyclables? Paper Towels? Most of the categories are fairly self-explanatory: Mixed Paper is mixed paper, Aluminum Beverage Cans is just that…but some are a little more obtuse – “Paper Towels” would be better called “Bale-able Non-R”, but the placards are made up already and the categories seem to change slightly every year so it’s not as easy as it might seem at first. A lot of it is driven by resale prices and value. We take special care to separate Ferrous and Non-Ferrous metals – even separating light and heavy metals.

The galley waste line

The galley waste line

The station 'waste/recycling room'

The station ‘waste/recycling room’

South Pole Waste Categories:

• Aluminum Cans
o Beverage cans only
o No pie plates, foil, etc.
o No contaminates… plastics, cig butts, chew juice, etc.
o Guinness beer cans are OK —aluminum valuable enough to deal w/ the widget
o Cans containing chew, cig butts or any food item go in Food Waste

• Cardboard
o Clean corrugated cardboard (please flatten)
o Tape on the cardboard is OK
o No paperboard (six pack holder, cereal box… goes in Mixed Paper)
o Oil or fuel contaminated goes to Haz—contact Waste dept for container location or delivery

The South Pole "Trash Matrix" a quick guide to common waste items and where they go.

The South Pole “Trash Matrix” a quick guide to common waste items and where they go.

• Glass
o Clean beverage and food glass
o No lids, corks, lemon/lime wedges or bottle caps
o No Guinness beer bottles—in Non-R because of the widget
o No drinking glasses, galley mugs, plates, mirrors, etc… put into Non-R or SKUA
o Broken glass should be protected in separate container (box, taped shut) and put into Non-R

• Metal– Ferrous
o Ferrous Light metal- bale-able items, thinner than 1/8”. Tiny pieces cannot be baled— they should be contained in a separate tin and placed into Non-R.
o Ferrous Heavy metal- no tiny pieces like bolts or nuts, washers, etc. unless contained—put into a tin galley can or cookie tin. Items larger than 1/8” thick.
o If it’s silver and shiny and you don’t have a magnet to test it—put it in Non-Ferrous (includes Stainless Steel)
o Galley Cans is separate category/tri-wall—flatten, paper is OK

• Metal– Non Ferrous (non- metallic metals)
o Mostly copper, brass, aluminum scrap
o No aluminum cans
o Anything with copper wiring is acceptable currently
o Anything silver and shiny goes here (if you don’t know if it’s ferrous/magnetic)

• Plastics
o Empty and clean plastic containers (all types). If a wee bit left, add water, swish and use up the last of it…
o Lids off, but stay in Plastic (some are recyclable)
o Bubble wrap
o Mylar, cellophane, plastic bags, any filmy stuff
o Foam peanuts (must be bagged & tied)
o Styrofoam, foam rubber, egg-crate foam (in Non-R is also OK but prefer bagged in PL)
o Nothing contaminated with Haz or food
o Empty oil, glycol, fuel containers or contaminated plastic goes to Haz—no need for HWIS, just call.

• Skua
o Clean, wearable clothing and shoes (no underwear)
o Useable items
o No trash please
o Anything with rips, cracks or shreds = Non-R or to the VMF for rags

A map of the DZ Waste Line

A map of the DZ Waste Line

• Mixed Paper
o All paper products without food contamination
o Magazines, newspapers, post-it notes, white/colored paper, paper board, books, etc.
o Paperboard is things like six-pack holders, beer/soda case boxes, cereal boxes
o No candy wrappers
o Envelopes w/ windows OK
o Waxy paper from label or laminate backing = Paper Towels

• Electronic Scrap
o End of life electronics, anything with a circuit board. Cables with copper wire go into Non-Ferrous Metal—the plastic sheathing is ok. (mice and extension cords = Non-R)

• Wood/Contaminated Wood
o Paint, glue, oil contaminates ok
o No big pieces of metal please, a few nails/screws are ok

• Food Waste
o “Anything that will rot”
o Shipped in refrigerated/freezer mil-vans, melted and burned at US facility
o Double bagged
o Any and all food contaminated items including cig butts, tea bags, spit cans, paper plates…

• Non-Recyclable
o Mixed media materials: bottle caps, corks, pens/pencils, air filters
o Anything that doesn’t belong in other categories
o Small, fly-away bits should be separately contained/bagged
o PVC, polyethylene, insulation (foams OK in Non-R but prefer bagged in Plastic)
o Guinness glass bottles (b/c of widget)
o Broken glass/ light bulbs (protected inside separate container—e.g. box, taped shut)
o Broken fluorescent tubes/bulbs are Haz, double-bag and contact Waste

• Paper Towels
o Paper towels, napkins, tissues with little or no bio-waste
o Hand warmers and wrappers
o Non-food-contaminated aluminum foil, tape, candy wrappers, foil-lined boxes
o Bagged and tied shut please

Example placards that are posted on and above trash cans around the station:



DZ at 11am this morning - you can see the waste line on the snow to the right.

DZ at 11am this morning – you can see the waste line on the snow to the right.


Filed under Antarctic, South Pole, Winter

The Antarctic Sun

The Antarctic Sun” is a monthly e-publication covering a wide range of USAP related logo-usapnews and media. There’s a lot of interesting info here and I’ll be contributing as the South Pole Correspondent providing monthly updates on life at the bottom of the world.

To see the station updates click on “Around the Continent” on the left side of the page, then on “Research Station Updates” from the drop-down list.


March 9, 2013 · 22:44

March 4, 2013 South Pole Weather


Week 3 of winter: broke the -100F windchill mark!

1 Comment

March 3, 2013 · 19:08